Succinctness, Verbosity, and Equivalence الإيجاز والإطناب والمساواة

 Equivalence المساواة literally: for tow things to be the same. Rhetorically: it  is when the meaning is conveyed in an equal number of words that corresponds to each meaning without adding or taking away words. In other words, the meaning corresponds to the words in the statement. For example: This food is delicious هذا الطعام لذيذ where the meaning of this statement does not require any extra or less words to be conveyed. 

Succinctness الإيجاز literally to be short, brief or concise. Rhetorically: to have less words and more words – it occurs when more meaning is conveyed in less words, i.e. the proposition has less words than the actual meaning achieved while being clear which results in having  minimum words for maximum meaning. Succinctness الإيجاز has two forms: a) Brevity Succinctness إيجاز قصر: this is the primary or main form of إيجاز which does not involve ellipsis of any words – conveying more meaning in less words without removing any words for example: Verily, eloquent speech has a magical effect إن من البيان لسحراً where the full meaning is conveyed within the words used.
b) Elliptical Succinctness إيجاز حذف: this form of إيجاز involves ellipsis of some words where a word or even a sentence is removed with an indication قرينة to the removed words. Hence, the meaning of the words or the sentences that are not mentioned is still fully conveyed. For example: Did Zaid arrive? Yes. هل حضر زيد؟ نعم Where the answer to the question was given in only word instead of saying “Yes, Zaid has arrived” نعم، حضر زيد. 

 

Verbosity الإطناب literally is to add. Rhetorically: it is to add is to add more words than the actual meaning conveyed without being redundant or having worries. In other words, it is the opposite of إيجاز. 

Verbosity الإطناب is used to add benefit through:   

1. ذكر الخاص بعد العام Mentioning the specific after mentioning the general to emphasize the virtue of the specific for example: {Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and inappropriate conduct and oppression} (16:90) {إن الله يأمر بالعدل والإحسان وإيتاء ذي القربى وينهى عن الفحشاء والمنكر ولابغي} where the specific details are mentioned after the general – giving is included in good conduct and oppression is included in immorality).  

2. ذكر العام بعد الخاص Mentioning the general after the specific to emphasize the general along with the specific. For example: {Our Lord, forgive me and my parents and believers the Day the account is established} (14:41) {ربنا اغفر لي ولوالدي و للمؤمنين يوم يقوم الحساب} where the parents are included in the believers but they are mentioned before them as a separate category – the specific is mentioned before the general.
3. الإيضاح بعد الإبهام To add clarity and remove ambiguity for example {And fear He who provided you with that with you know} {He provided you grazing livestock and children} (26:123-133) {واتقوا الذي أكدكم بما تعلمون} {أمدكم بأنعام وبنين} where the second verse is providing more details to add clarity to the meaning of the first.
4. التكرار To repeat to serve a function such as affirming and stabilizing the meaning in the addressee’s mind, to express regret or to have a long pause for example: {But if you forgive and overlook and cover up their faults, verily Allah is Most forgiving, Most merciful} (64:14) {وإن تعفوا وتصفحوا وتغفروا فإن الله غفور رحيم} where all three words, forgive, overlook, and cover up faults are synonyms and have been repeated to encourage forgiveness.
5. الاعتراض Objection or interruption: to have a sentence between two connected sentences. For example: if all students – and you are one of them – studied, the teachers’ job would be easier لو أن الطلاب وأنت منهم درسوا لكانت مهمة المعلم أسهل where “and you are one of them” is a form of objection to emphasis a meaning. 

6. التذييل To append a sentence by another than is has the same meaning or explains it as a form of emphasis for example: {By that We repaid them because they disbelieved. And do We repay except the ungrateful} (34:17) {ذلك جزينهم بما كفروا وهل نجازي إلا الكفور} where the first part of the verse is followed by “And do We repay except the ungrateful” to add further explanation to the first.

7. الاحتراس To avoid a meaning that may cause blame or reprimand for example: May Allah overcome every enemy of yours except yourself “كبت الله كل عدو لم إلا نفسك” where “except yourself” is added to avoid blame that may result from the meaning before it.