Reporting and Informing Propositions/al-khabar wal-inshā’ الخبر والإنشاء
A proposition is either a reporting or an informing statement. Reporting Proposition جملة خبرية: is to add one word to another in a way that results in a useful meaning. The reporting statement الجملة الخبرية provides information that has the potential of being either true or false. In other words, the information provided can be verified or falsified in its own content. If the information conveyed to the addressee is correct, i.e. corresponds to the circumstances and the context of the situation in reality, the reporting proposition is true; if it is incorrect, the proposition is false. For example: “Zaid is standing ” زيد قائم” is a proposition that provides information about Zaid’s current activity. If Zaid is actually standing, then the reporting statement is deemed to be true and the addressor, truthful. However, if Zaid is not standing, then the information provided is false and the addressor is untruthful.
An informing proposition جملة إنشائية is a statement hat cannot qualify to be true or false as it does not concern the situation context in reality. For example: “Is Zaid studying?” هل زيد يدرس؟ or “Study!” ادرس! The addressor is simply asking a question استفهام in the first example and giving a command أمر in the second. Both statements cannot qualify to be true or false i.e. the addressor cannot be judged if he’s being truthful or untruthful. Hence, it cannot be determined whether the addressor is being truthful or untruthf.
All reporting الخبرية and informing الإنشائية propositions الجمل have two components:
1) al-musnad lāihi المسند إليه: which is the subject or that to which something is attributed.
2) al-musnad المسند: predicate or that which is attributed. Both al-musnad ilaihi and al musnad can be human or non-human nouns. (add sub-categories of both)
Zaid stood up قام زيد where زيد is مسند إليه and قام is مسند.
Zaid is standing زيد قائم here زيد is مسند إليه and قائم is مسند.
A reporting statement الجملة الخبرية has two primary functions أغراض الخبر:
- The primary functions:
- Reporting value فائدة الخبر – conveying new information or verdict to the addressee.
- Reporting added value لازم الفائدة – not only conveying old information or the verdict to the addressee but also conveying that the addresser is aware of the verdict.
- Secondary functions of الخبر: these are context sensitive and they include: to seek mercy, to express distress, to express weakness, to rebuke, to move the audience towards an advise, to express joy to the reception of good.
Modes of الجملة الخبرية (reporting):
1 Basic/ibtidaai: الخبر الابتدائيbasic or first stage: when the addressee is open minded and does not require a tool of emphasis with respect to the reporting proposition for example: Zaid is studying زيد يدرس (no need for any tool of emphasis)
2 Request/talabi: الخبر الطلبي requesting: when the addressee is uncertain and requires certainty and hence needs one tool of emphasizing for example Indeed, Zaid is studying إن زيداً يدرس (one tool of emphasis إن used)
3 Denial/inkāri: الخبر الإنكاريdenial reporting: when the addressee is in denial and hence requires more than one tool of emphasizing – Some of the emphasizing tools أدوات التوكيد are: إن، أن، القسم، لام الابتداء، نونا التوكيد،…. for example إن زيداً ليدرس (two tools of emphasis used – إن and لام الابتداء)
There are two modes of informing speech الجملة الإنشائية. Informing statement is either request informing طلبية, or non-request informing غير طلبية. Request informing طلبية requires something requested that has not occurred at the time of making the request. This mode include: command/imperativeأمر, prohibitive construction نهي, interrogative construction استفهام, whish construction تمني, and vocative construction نداء. Non-Request informing غير طلبية does not require something requested and this mode includes: praise and dispraise المدح والذم, oath القسم, astonishmen التعجب, hope الرجاء, and transactional construction عقود البيوع.