Hypallage/al-Majaz al-Mursal المجاز المرسل
المجاز المرسل is a sub-caregory of majaaz/hypallage. Rhetorically: it is when a word is used in a meaning/signification that is non intrinsic. المجاز المرسل requires a lexical clue القرينة that indicates the usage of the non intrinsic meaning and is found within the context of the sentence. The relationship between the original/literal meaning and the metaphorical meaning of the word can be anything other that similarity المشابهة, as sharing a common feature between the two meanings or significations is specific to Simile التشبيه. This relationship علاقة could be one of the following:
1. Causality Relationship العلاقة السببية (sababiyya): where the majaaz/hypallage word is treated as being the cause of something else while in reality it is the effect of it for example: the cattle has grazed the rain رعت الماشية الغنم where the rain, is being intended as the cause instead of intending the result/effect of the rain.
2. Effect/Result Relationship العلاقة المسببية (musabbibiyya): where the majaaz/hypallage word is treated as being the effect of something where in reality it is the cause of it. For example: Zaid called his friend to prison دعى زيد صديقه إلى السجن where instead of saying Zaid invited his friend to commit a crime, the word “prison” which is the outcome or result of committing a crime is used.
3. Whole to part relationship العلاقة الجزئية (juz’iyya): where the majaaz/hypallage word is treated as a whole but in reality it is part of the whole. For example: Zaid swam in the ocean سبح زيد في البحر where Zaid swam in part of the ocean rather than the whole.
4. Part to whole relationship العلاقة الكلية (kulliya): where the majaaz/hypallage word is treated as a part but the whole is intended for example: the teacher gave a word ألقى المعلم كلمة where the word that is part of the speech is used instead of using the speech itself.
5. Past Relationship اعتبار ما كان (‘Itibar ma kaana): whrere the majaaz/hypallage word is used as past but the future is intended for example: I am wearing cotton ألبس قطناً where the intended meaning is I am wearing something made of cotton, i.e. it was cotton before becoming a garment.
6. Future Relationship اعتبار ما سيكون (‘Itibaar ma sa yakunu): where the majaaz/hypallage word is used as present but the past is intended for example: You have been blessed with a bride رزقك الله عروساً which is said when a girl is born meaning that a girl that will be a bride in the future is born.
7. Place Relationship العلاقة المكانية when the majaaz/hypallage word is used as a place where the state is intended for example: your house brought this بيتك أحضر هذا where the house is used to signify the wife or the people of the house, i.e. family, children, etc.
8. State Relationship العلاقة الحالية: where the majaaz/hypallage word is used as describing the state but the place is intended. For example: Zaid lives in luxury يعيش زيد في رفاهية alluding to a place that has a luxurious lifestyle.