Lesson One  

Introductory Definitions 

 

Balāgha:  

Linguistically: eloquence, rhetoric, figurative speech.  

Technically: the correspondence of clear speech to the reality of the situation. 

 

Fasāha:  

Linguistically: eloquence, fluency, clarity. 

Technically: speech that is clear in its meaning and easy to speak, pronounce and hear. It is speech that is in accordance with the grammatical rules of the Arabic language. 

 

Fasāha in wordis achieved when its letters are free of repulsion, disharmony and awkwardness and does not contradict the standard morphology rules/scale and that is not unpleasant to hear. 

 

Fasāha in speechis achieved when its words are free of incongruity and disharmony, free of weakness in its composition, free of complications in its meaning and verbal pronunciation, and free of excessive repetition. 

 

Disharmony of letters: occurs when the letters are heavy to the ear and difficult to pronounce by the tongue. 

 

Odd/awkwardness in usage: occurs when a word is unclear in its meaning and not used commonly by the scholars of eloquent speech, poets or writers. 

 

Contradicting the morphology scale: occurs when a word does not follow the standard morphology rules set by the scholars of the Arabic morphology. 

 

Disharmony of words: occurs with the succession of words that have similar letters or letters that are close in pronunciation as this makes it difficult and unpleasant to hear or pronounce. 

 

Weak Composition: is speech that does not follow the standard grammar rules set by the scholars of the Arabic grammar. 

 

Verbal complication: is speech that is difficult to understand as it lacks the proper word order that is in accordance with the meaning. 

 

Meaning Complication: is to use a word in a meaning that is not appropriate for the actual meaning of the word. 

 

Clarity of speaker: is a talent that enables him to express his objective in a clear and eloquent speech that is free of any deficiencies (mentioned above. 

 

Eloquence of speech: is speech that is in accordance of the situation in reality. 

 

Eloquence of speaker: is a talent that enables the speaker to express various objectives in different methods that correspond with the reality of the situation.